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University of Connecticut Economic History of the Ottoman Empire

 

 

A Glossary of Terms Used in Ottoman Tax Registers (Tahrir Defterleri) 

WORD

TÜRKÇE

ENGLISH

ades

mercimek

lentil

ağnam (adet-i)

koyunlardan ve keçilerden alınan vergi

sheep tax

akça, akçe

 

Ottoman silver coin

anı’l galle

hububattan

from cereals

arussiye (resm-i)

yeni evlenenlerden alınan bir vergi

bride tax

asiyab (resm-i)

değirmen vergisi

mill tax

avarız-ı divaniyye, 

olağanüstü vergi [tekalif-i örfiye]

extraordinary levies

bab

sayma birimi (değirmenler için)

piece (literally door), unit of account for mills

bazar (bac-ı)

vergi, harç; gümrük vergisi

market or transit dues

bad-i hava

bedava

 

windfall (lit.); miscellaneous fees, fines, and dues

bagât

üzüm bağları, bahçeler

vineyard

bashtina

çiftlik

a Slavic term used in the Balkans for farm

bedestan

 

covered market

bennak (resm-i)

yarım çiftten az toprağı olan şahıslarin odedikleri vergi; ekinlü bennak (yarım çiftten az); caba-bennak (tapulu toprağı olmayan)

taxes on peasant holding of less than half a çift

 

ber

 

upon, according to

ber vech-i maktu

maktu vergilendirme yoluyla

by means of maktu

berat

devlet onayı

a diploma bearing sultan’s official seal

berre res, oşri

kuzu başına vergi

lamb tax

besatin

işlemeli kumaş

 cloth

bey

 

governor of a district

beylerbeyi

 

"bey of beys," governor of a beylerbeyilik, the largest administrativeunit in the Ottoman Empire"

bezirhane

 

bulghur mill

bezzaz

 

linen draper

bive

kocasız kadın, dul

widow

bostan [pl: besatin]

 

vegetable (esp. mellon) garden

boyahane

 

dye-house

bozahane

 

brewery where boza (fermented millet drink) is made

caba

 

bachelor landless peasant

cemaat [A:jamaa]

 

tribal unit

cevzak

 

a cotton-pod.

cizye [A: djizya]

Müslüman olmayanlardan alınan şahsa bağlı vergi

poll-tax on non-Muslims

cürm ve cinayet (resm-i)

cinayet ve suçlardan alınan vergi

dues on murders and crimes

çarşı

 

mall, conglomoration of shops

çayır

 

meadow, pasture, grazing land

çeltük

prinç

rice

çeltükçi

 

producer engaged in rice cultivation

çiftlik

 

farm

çift (resm-i)

 

tax on farm land workable by a pair (çift) of oxen

çift bozan resmi

zıraati bırakip başka işlerle uğraşanlardan alınan vergi

tax paid by those who have left their farm for other occupations

dalyani

 

fishing net enclosure

der ...

- da, de

at

der nezd-i ...

yanında

near

deştbani, resm-i (adet-i)

kır bekçisi vergisi

fees for pasture guard

dıhn [dukhn]

 dari,erzen

millet; maize

divani

 

pertaining to the central government

dönüm (resm-i)

toprağa bağlı, dönum başına ödenen vergi [resm-i zemin]

land tax, paid per unit of land

duhan-hane

[resm-i tütün, kışlak, dûd]

 

emin

 

government official appointed for the collection of taxes

enâr

nar

pomegranate

erzen

darı, dıhn

millet; maize

esb

at

horse

eşcar

ağaçlar

trees

fevakih

meyvalar, yemişler

fruit

fiat

price, rate of sale

ful

bakla

broad-bean

galle

hububat geliri

income, yield from cereals

ganem

koyun

sheep

gebran (cizye-i)

Hırıstiyanlardan alınan cizye

poll tax from Christians

giyah

 

hay

grah

 

bean

güncid [küncid]

künci, sisam

sesame

hacer

 

mill-stone

han

 

inn or caravanserai

hane

 

household

harac [A: kharādj]

 

tribute

harâc ül-kürûm

bağ haracı

tax on vineyards

harir

ipek, koza

silk

hasil

 

total revenue or income

hasıl el-Galle

mahsul geliri

revenue from cereals

hasıl hariç ...

... harici gelir

revenue except from ...

hass or hassa

 

special (lit.), land belonging to a member of the elite or to the sultan

havass-i humayun

 

sources of revenue reserved for the central treasury

hınta

buğday, gendüm

wheat

hime ve giyah (resm-i)

 

"firewood and hay" tax, colected as cash payments for older feudal services in Hungary

hisse

 

share

hummus

nohut

chickpea

icmal

 

summary surveys showing the allocation of revenue sources

ihtisab (resm-i)

damga, tartı, ölçü ve pazar resmi adı altında alınan vergiler; hile yapan esnaftan alınan para cezaları

 various (e.g., stamp, scale, market)  municipality taxes 

iki-baştan

 

system of allocating tax revenues equally between private and government holders

iskele

 

harbor

ispence [originally Sl, jupanića]

 

poll-tax paid to feudal lord in the pre-Ottoman Serbia; continued under the Ottomans as a customary personal tax

kah

 

straw

kanare (resmi)

 

slaughterhouse, tax on slaughtered animals

kapı (resmi)

 

"gate" tax, observed in Hungarian provinces

karye

köy

village

kendir

 

hemp

kelem

 

cabbage

keten

 

flax

kevvare (resm-i) [küvvare]

kovan, petek, asel

beehive tax

keyl [kile]

tahıl, hubûbat ölçüsü

Ottoman unit for measuring cereals

kırat [qīrāt]

1/24

"the twenty-fourth part" for the division of revenue

kıst

hisse, pay

share

kışlak (resm-i)

tütün (resm-i), duhan, dud

tax on winter pasture

kıymet

 

value

kile

tahıl, hubûbat ölçüsü

Ottoman unit for measuring cereals

kilisa

 

church

kürūm (harāc ül-)

bağlar

tax on vineyards

küşne

karaburçak

vetch

liva [A: liwā]

 

see sancak

mahalle

 

quarter in a town

mahi (resm-i)

balık

fish

mahlut

melez, arpa-buğday karışımı

the mixture of rye and wheat

maktu [A: maķtū‘]

kesişme, toptan ödeme

a fixed lump sum payment of taxes

malikane

 

revenues assigned to pre-Ottoman ruling groups in central and eastern Anatolia that also held rights of ownership

ma’sere, resmi

 

a place wheer juices are expressed; an oil mill

maş

bülceye benzeyen fasulye

Indian pulse

ma’ze (resm-i)

 

goat

meyhane

 

winery or establishment where wine was manufactured and sold

meyve

fevakih

fruit

mezbur

adı geçen, aynı

aforementioned

mezra’a

 

a field under cultivation but with no permanent settlement; land reclaimed by a nearby village

miri

devlete ait

revenues belonging to the state

mirliva

 

governor of a district or liva

mirmiran

 

governor of a province or vilayet

mizan

 

scales used to weigh silk

mufassal

 

detailed survey 

mukataa

 

a revenue source assigned as a renting contract, tax farm

mücerred (Resm-i)

iş ve kazanç sahibi olacak yaşa gelmiş bekâr erkek

bachelor tax

müdd [mud]

20 kile

Ottoman measurement unit equal to twenty kiles

mülk

 

freehold ownership

mültezim

 

tax-farmer

nahiye

 

smallest administrative unit in the Ottoman system of administration,a sub-division of a district

narh

 

officially declared prices

neferen

erkek kişiler, adamlar

adult male

nefs

 

itself (lit.); town; the administrative capital of a sub-division

nisif [nısf]

yarım, yarı, buçuk

half

nim

yarım

half

niyabet

 

fines imposed on criminals

nüzül

 

extraordinary taxes

otlak (resm-i)

 

tax on grazing land

öşür

 

tithes (lit. 1/10)

pekmez

 

grape extract

penbe

pamuk

cotton

pinte

 

unit of measurement for liquids

piyaz

soğan

onion

rah (resm-i)

 

road or toll tax paid at bridge heads

rakaba

 

legal ownership right to the land

resm

yazma, çizme, vergi

tax, dues

revgan (resm-i)

dues levied on butter

rub

çeyrek, dörtte bir

quarter

salariye

 

tax collector’s share for fodder

sancak

 

a sub-province; district

sayfi (mal-ı)

yazlık sebzeler

summer vegetables

sefine

 

ship

simsim

susam

sesame

sipahi

 

a mounted soldier; member of the cavalry divisions

şa’ir

arpa

barley

şemhane

 

candle manufactory

şira (resm-i)

 

tax on grape juice

tahun, resm-i

asiyab, resm-i

tax on water mill

tamga

 

stamp tax levied on manufactures

tapu, resm-i

devlet topraklarının kullanılmasından, el değiştirmesinden alınan vergi

fees derived from granting of possession rights to state-owned land

tekalif-i örfiye

 avarız-ı divaniyye

extraordinary taxes

timar

 

a prebend acquired through a sultanic diploma, granting tax revenues in return for regular military service

tütün (Resm-i)

kışlamak için gelip yerleşen, fakat ziraat yapmayan hâriç raiyyetin ödediği vergi [duhan (resm-i), kışlak (resm-i), dûd (resm-i]

dues paid by peasants from other districts for temporary (winter) stay

vakf [wakf, plural awkaf]

 

a pious foundation

varak

yaprak, kağıt

paper, sheet

vech

yüz, surat, çehre

face

vilayet

 

province, the second largest administrative division in the OttomanEmpire

yatak (resm-i)

ağıl resmi, hariçten gelip kışlayan sürüden alınan vergi

dues levied on herds spending the winter

yava (resm-i)

kaçak köle veya hayvandan alınan vergi

dues on runaway animals or slaves

yaylak (resm-i)

 

tax on using summer pasture

yekün

 

total

zaim

 

holder of a zeamet

zemin (resm-i)

sulak araziden alınan vergi

tax on rented land

ziamet

 

a prebend acquired through a sultanic diploma, granting tax revenues (larger than timar) in return for regular military service

zimmi(yan)

 

non-Muslims (Christians and Jews)